Host EAROPH 24th World Congress
Indonesia is located in South-East Asia between the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It has five big main islands such as Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua with beautiful sceneries. Indonesia has 33 provinces that spread throughout the country with its cultural diversity. The 33 provinces are Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Island, West Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu, South Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung, Lampung,West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, DKI Jakarta, Banten, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, South-East Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, Maluku, North Maluku, West Papua and Papua.
As the 24th EAROPH World Congress will be held in Jakarta, below is an introduction about Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta or abbreviated as DKI Jakarta:
Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta or DKI Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and it was well known as “Batavia” during the Dutch colonial period until it was restored as “Jakarta” when the Japanese occupied Jakarta in 1942. Three years after the Japanese occupation, Indonesia gained its independent on 17 Augustus 1945 and Ir. Soekarno as its first president while Mohammad Hatta as its vice president.
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River. Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin ranged from −2 to 50 metres or about −7 to 164 feet with average of elevation 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level that provoke the annual flood during the wet season. The northern areas of Jakarta are below sea level whereas the southern areas are comparatively hilly area. The rivers flow from Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea and the most important river that divides the city into the western and eastern parts is the Ciliwung River. There are also the Pesanggrahan and Sunter rivers.
Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres each year, even up to 20 centimetres in the northern coastal areas. The government of DKI Jakarta is reconstructing the entire reservoir in Jakarta and also reallocate the citizen that lives near the river banks, lake or the coastal area in order to prevent the annual flood and have a better living condition.
Today, Jakarta became one of the most crowded cities in Indonesia with its population of 10.188.000 people. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre. The official metropolitan area, know as Jabodetabek (its the abbreviation of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi).
Its development towards globalization has been rapidly increasing over the past few years. In 2008, based on Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) Jakarta is listed as a global city and based on a survey of Brooking Institute, Jakarta ranked the 17th among the world’s 200 largest cities for economic growth in 2011. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing and Bangkok.
Jakarta as one of the biggest city in Indonesia plays an important role in economy sector. Jakarta's economy depends heavily on financial service, trade, and manufacturing. Industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing. The economic growth of Jakarta in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%). In 2007, GRP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GDRP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%). In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year. Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat), which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in DKI Jakarta.
Moreover, Jakarta is served by the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport and Tanjung Priok Harbour. It is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
There are also five toll roads are Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road connecting to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road connecting to Tangerang and further to Merak in the West Jakarta, Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road connecting to Serpong, Jagorawi Toll Road connecting to Bogor and Ciawi in the South Jakarta, Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road connecting to Bekasi and Cikampek in the East Jakarta.
There are lots of types of public transportation in Indonesia especially in Jakarta such as taxi, tansjakarta, buses, angkot, auto rickshaws (bajaj), ojeg, pedicabs (becak), train or commuter line (KRL Jabotabek). People that live around Jakarta or the Commuters can use either of the public transportation except for bajaj or becak (bajaj and becak are banne dis some area of the city) to get to their office.
However, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems and traffic jam. The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritized development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles. Most trips are undertaken by non-motorized transportation (particularly walking) and numerous modes of public or demand-responsive transportation services.
Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta's main arteries. Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day.
Electronic Road Pricing
Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta administration will implement Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) in 10 districts: Tanah Abang, Menteng, Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari. The projects will initiate once approved by the Finance Ministry. The ERP will be implemented in the three-in-one zone and along Jl. Rasuna Said in Kuningan by the first quarter of 2014. Vehicles passing through the ERP areas will be charged Rp 21,072.
KRL Jabotabek or commuter train
KRL Jabotabek or commuter train was first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. KRL and train are one of the public transportation that connected the neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The surrounding cities of Jakarta are served by KRL Jabotabek, a mass rapid transit system which serves commuters both in and around Jakarta. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.
In 2013, the project of monorail has been relaunched after officially abadoned in 2008 due to the lack of investors. This project is scheduled to be operating in 2016. The two-line metro (MRT) will serve north-south between Kota and Lebak Bulus, and an east-west line, which will connect to the north-south line at Sawah Besar Station.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport in Jakarta although the location is outside of the city but most people would know it as a part of Jakarta. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is usually called Cengkareng or Soetta.The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng which is the exact location name and it is situated in Tangerang, Banten.
On the other hand, Jakarta has its second airport called Halim Perdanakusuma Airport(HLP) serves only domestic flight of low cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago.
In recent years, the government has built canals such as kanal banjir barat and kanal banjir timur in order to reduce the flood during the wet season. The city administration also tried to introduce the waterway as a means of transportation on 6 June 2007. The river boat route service is along the Ciliwung River.
However, this route couldn’t serve well due the large amount of floating garbage which kept jamming the propeller and it’s no longer in service. The varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons also affected the close-down.
Tanjung Priok is the largest and busiest seaport in Indonesia. It serves many ferries that connected to different parts of Indonesia. The annual traffic capacity is around 45 million tonnes of cargo and 4,000,000 TEU's. The port runs an important role in economy aspect with more than 18,000 of employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year.
Tanjung Priok has 20 terminals such as general cargo, multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals. In December 2011, Muara Angke Port has been renovated with cost Rp130 billion ($14.4 million) in 3 hectares area. Today, Muara Angke Port is used for public transport port to Thousand Islands, while Marina Ancol Port will be used as tourist ship port.